CONNECTIVITY for the INTERNET OF THINGS
Friday, May 12, 2017, 8:15 am – 12:15 pm
UBC Campus, Kaiser Building
Rooms 2020 and 2030
Abstracts for Poster Presentations
01. Title: Cross-platform Data Integrity and Confidentiality with Graduated Access Control
AUTHOR: Amanda Carbonari, Peter Chen, Haoran Yu, Andrew Warfield, and Ivan Beschastnikh
ABSTRACT: Security of data is tightly coupled to its access policy. However, in practice, a data owner has control of his data’s access policies only as far as the boundaries of his own systems. In this paper, we introduce graduated access control, which provides mobile, programmable, and dynamically-resolving policies for access control that extends a data owner’s policies across system boundaries. We realize this through a novel data-centric abstraction called trusted capsules and its associated system, the trusted data monitor.
A trusted capsule couples data and policy into a single mobile unit. A capsule is backwards-compatible and is in- distinguishable with any regular file to applications. In coordination with the trusted data monitor a capsule provides data integrity and confidentiality on remote devices, strong authentication to a trusted capsule service, and supports nuanced and dynamic access control decisions on remote systems. We implemented our data monitor using ARM TrustZone. We show that graduated access control can express novel and useful real world policies, such as revocation, remote monitoring, and risk-adaptable disclosure. We illustrate trusted capsules for different file formats, including JPEG, FODT, and PDF. We also show compatibility with unmodified applications, such as LibreOffice Writer, Evince, and VLC. In general, we found that applications operating on trusted capsules have varying performance, which depends on file size, application access patterns, and policy complexity.
02. Title: Scalable Constraint-based Virtual Data Center Allocation
AUTHOR: Nodir Kodirov, Sam Bayless, Ivan Beschastnikh, Holger H. Hoos, Alan J. Hu
ABSTRACT: Virtual data center allocation is a challenging network resource allocation problem, in which instead of allocating a single virtual machine to the cloud, a connected virtual data center (VDC) consisting
of several individual virtual ma- chines must be allocated together, with guaranteed bandwidth between some or all of the virtual machines. We introduce Netsolver, a virtual data center allocation tool based on the general-purpose constraint solver MonoSAT. Netsolver is scalable, sound, and complete, with support for end-to-end, multi-path bandwidth guarantees across all the layers of hosting infrastructure, from servers to top-of-rack switches to aggregation switches to access routers. Netsolver takes seconds to allocate a VDC containing 5-15 VMs to physical data centers with 1000+ servers. Unlike previous approaches, Netsolver maintains this efficiency even when the data centre is nearly saturated. In many cases, Netsolver can allocate 150% − 300% as many total VDCs to the same physical data center as previous methods. We also demonstrate that Netsolver is useful beyond VDC allocation; in particular, we find it to be effective at network function virtualization (NFV) placement, where it represents a substantial improvement over prior approaches.
03. Title: Grant-free NOMA for IoT – A 3GPP Standardization Perspective
AUTHOR: Naveen Mysore Balsubramanya, Ali Cirik, Lutz Lampe
ABSTRACT: The dramatic increase in Internet traffic to and from wireless devices poses significant challenges for network operators. Much of the future growth in Internet traffic is predicted to originate from non-human operated devices or the so-called Internet of Things (IoT) communication. We present non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) combined with grant-free communication, which can effectively address the key performance requirements of the IoT scenarios being considered in the third generation partnership project (3GPP) standardization activities. We describe promising grant-free NOMA solutions with respect to synchronization and hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) procedures. We also propose the high- level design of a new grant-free state of operation and explain its interaction with the legacy long term evolution (LTE) operating states.
04. Title: Visible Light Communication for the IoT
AUTHOR: Ayman Mostafa, Hao Ma, Lutz Lampe
ABSTRACT: The scarcity of the radio frequency (RF) spectrum presents a major challenge to network operators as it sets a fundamental limit on wireless connectivity and achievable data rates. With the arrival of the Internet of Things (IoT), the traffic volume, as well as the number of connected devices, is expected to keep increasing, and it is highly unlikely that network operators will be able to satisfy the growing demand for wireless connectivity while sticking to the finite RF spectrum. Visible light communication (VLC) is a technology that converts light-emitting diodes (LEDs) into wireless data transmitters. VLC systems enjoy a license-free spectrum and immunity to RF interference. Furthermore, the propagation characteristics of light waves allow the deployment of ultra-dense VLC networks with very limited inter-network interference. In this work, we propose the use of VLC for wireless connectivity in the IoT. VLC enable LED-equipped devices to connect with one another, which lends itself to scalable connectivity among arbitrary large number of devices. Typical applications include, but are not limited to, smart home, smart transportation, and vehicle-to-vehicle communications.
05. Title: Power Line Communication for the IoT
AUTHOR: Gautham Prasad, Yinjua Huo, Lutz Lampe, Victor C.M. Leung
ABSTRACT: Power Line Communication (PLC) reuses the existing power line infrastructure for data communication, rendering PLC as an appealing solution for enabling connectivity for the Internet of Things (IoT). In this work, we focus on the application of PLC in a convergent smart home, which imposes several challenges, including the issue of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) with other radio signals, and the medium access availability in heavy congestion. To this end, we present two solutions that make use of in-band full-duplex operation to enable medium aware data transmission. In our first solution, we propose a spectrum sensing strategy that provides an optimal dynamic spectrum management solution by transmitting PLC data on idle
broadcast radio bands, while simultaneously sensing for a broadcast radio signal. As our second solution, we further apply the same underlying principle to achieve carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) to reduce the cost a frame collision and thereby improve the MAC layer efficiency. Through these solutions, we improve the applicability of PLC for an indoor IoT scenario by effectively handling electromagnetic interference, and by providing a solution to achieve scalable connectivity for arbitrary number of devices connected to the PLC network.
06. Title: Collaborative Hierarchical Caching in Cloud Radio Access Networks
AUTHOR: Xiuhua Li
ABSTRACT: To deal with the severe challenge from explosively increasing mobile users’ multimedia service requests in mobile networks, introducing cloud-based computing platform and content caching into radio access networks (RANs) has become an effective emerging technique. In this paper, we propose a collaborative hierarchical caching framework in cloud RANs (C-RANs), which minimizes the access delay of content delivery under certain specific network constraints to improve users’ Quality of Service (QoS) as well as offload network traffic. Specifically, based on the formed hierarchical caching topology consisting of two tiers of content caching at the base stations and the cloud central unit (CCU), we decompose the formulated large-scale optimization problem into a series of simpler subproblems, and then propose the corresponding low-complexity distributed heuristic solutions as well as a content request routing scheme. Trace-based evaluation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.
07. Title: Energy Efficient Architectures for Intenet-of-Things: Connecting People, Data and Things
AUTHOR: Chinmaya Mahapatra and Victor C.M. Leung
ABSTRACT: Smart and green buildings for sustainable cities is very much like a conceptualized blueprint, rather than actual services that have been implemented and put in use in people’s everyday life. However, the development of the concept is booming while the urban population has expanded rapidly in recent years. By 2025, with more than 60% of the world population expected to live in urban cities. By 2023, there will be 30 mega cities globally, with 55% in developing countries. Cities today face multifarious challenges, including environmental sustainability, low carbon solutions and providing better services to their citizens. Given these trends, it is critical to understand how information and communication technology (ICT) can benefit the future of city-planning process. Internet of Things (IoT) is such a futuristic communication concept integrating plethora of interconnected heterogeneous objects and things in real time, forming a large scale smart city system, that is, it can communicate and control other objects over a global network. Technologies like Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Wireless sensor networks, artificial intelligence and machine learning form the backbone of such interactions. The IoT ambitions and scope are designed to respond to the need for real-time, context-specific information intelligence and analytics to address specific local imperatives. The lessons and framework can provide other cities with a building block for progressing strategies, and for developing their own city initiatives.
08. Title: The coordination of distributed processes in Fog Computing applications
AUTHOR: Nam Giang
ABSTRACT: The coming of Fog Computing era where computing infrastructure is distributed and extended further to edge devices opens a new important research question. This research focuses on the process of building applications that run on Fog Computing environment. In particular, it studies the flow-based coordination model for application construction and related coordination mechanisms to fulfill the application logic given the physical constraints of Fog Computing infrastructure such as mobility and heterogeneity. Initial findings show that coordinating distributed processes, i.e distributed nodes in a flow-based application, in Fog Computing remains a challenging tasks. The study discusses the challenges and proposes several new coordination mechanisms to solve these challenges.
09. Title: Stable Throughput Region of Downlink NOMA Transmission with Limited CSI
AUTHOR: Yong Zhou and Vincent W.S. Wong
ABSTRACT: Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has recently been proposed as a key enabling technology for the fifth generation (5G) wireless networks. Different from the existing works which focus on the performance analysis of NOMA with backlogged traffic, in this paper, we analyze the stable throughput region of downlink NOMA transmission with dynamic traffic arrival for users with different priorities. By utilizing limited instantaneous channel state information (CSI) at the base station, we propose an opportunistic NOMA scheme to enhance the network performance. Considering both NOMA and dynamic traffic arrival leads to interacting queues, which complicate the performance analysis. By using tools from stochastic geometry and queueing theory, we decouple the interacting queues and characterize the stable throughput region of the proposed opportunistic NOMA scheme in terms of the threshold to trigger NOMA and transmission power allocation coefficients. Numerical results show that, compared to the orthogonal multiple access scheme, the proposed opportunistic NOMA scheme can significantly enhance the stable throughput region when the design parameters are appropriately selected.
10. Title: Connectivity Maximization for Narrowband IoT Systems with NOMA
AUTHOR: Ahmed Elhamy Mostafa, Yong Zhou, and Vincent W.S. Wong
ABSTRACT: Narrowband Internet of Things (NB-IoT) is a recently standardized technology to support machine-type communications (MTC) in Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) Pro networks. NB-IoT can enable energy-efficient communication with extended coverage on a narrow bandwidth of 180 kHz for low-cost MTC devices (MTCDs). The main challenge of supporting MTC in LTE-A Pro networks is to provide connectivity to a massive number of MTCDs. To overcome this challenge, in this paper, we propose a power-domain uplink non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) scheme for NB-IoT systems. By allowing multiple MTCDs to share the same sub-carrier, NOMA can provide connectivity to more MTCDs than orthogonal multiple access (OMA). We formulate a joint sub-carrier and transmission power allocation problem to maximize the number of MTCDs satisfying the quality of service (QoS) and transmission power requirements. We decompose the problem into two sub-problems and propose algorithms to solve them. Simulation results show that our proposed NOMA scheme can significantly increase the number of successfully connected MTCDs in NB-IoT systems compared to OMA.
11. Title: MiniCloud: Dynamic and Secure Storage Service for IoT Systems
AUTHOR: Mehdi Karimibiuki, Ekta Aggarwal, Andre Ivanov
ABSTRACT: In this work, we have taken a deep-dive in re-architecting IoT gateways to mitigate interoperability and connectivity challenges involved in heterogeneous Internet-connected objects. We have devised a “MiniCloud” IoT hub as a real-time data-streaming store. MiniCloud plays as an umbrella for collecting local heterogeneous devices’ data. MiniCloud inherits client-server composition and is “easy-to-connect-to” between heterogeneous devices. MiniCloud is also capable of connecting to the enterprise cloud services like Microsoft Azure. Our design of MiniCloud is intended to securely enhance the data management. In our poster, we will be presenting the architecture of the MiniCloud with some performance metrics to prove its viability and scalability. Here are some of the highlights of the MiniCloud. Data are treated at single data point granularity precision. This allows flexible construction and dynamic abstraction. MiniCloud has simplified inter-processor communication (IPC). Connecting devices share a common data definition and an identifier for each data point. In addition, MiniCloud allows loose-coupling between different IoT modules and products. This is particularly significant for the Web-of-Things where the relations between the resources and HTTP REST URIs require a dynamic back-end model. Last but not least, MiniCloud while time-stamping and keeping the latest values of live-stream data, is capable of taking snapshots and logging datapoints at timed intervals.
12. Title: Overcoming the Software Monoculture with Automated Program Diversity
AUTHOR: Abraham Chan, Karthik Pattabiraman, Ivan Beschastnikh
ABSTRACT: Internet of Things systems that exhibit software monocultures are susceptible to large scale security attacks as attacks on a single device can be effortlessly scaled out to the rest of the system.
Program diversity has been proposed as a means of defending systems from mass scale security attacks and system failures. However, developer-implemented program diversity has been dismissed due to its prohibitive cost in a production environment. Existing automated diversity techniques have focused on equivalent instruction replacement and program control flow modification. In contrast, we focus on algorithmic diversity – functionally equivalent implementations that return the same result. We present a fully automated end to end algorithmic diversity approach by adopting techniques in program synthesis. We demonstrate how our approach can be deployed as a defence against code reuse attacks and common software faults.
13. Title: SmartJS: Automated Runtime System and Middleware for Next-Generation loT Systems
AUTHOR: Mohammad Rafiuzzaman, Julien Gascon-Samson, Karthik Pattabiraman